Rubble Stonewall Construction
Colonial era stone houses are constructed using the rubble stonewall construction. Rubble stone walls were built using a clay and lump lime bedding mix in thick walls from 18” to several feet thick. A veneer of cut stones faces off the wall, with a random rubble stonewall hidden behind the exterior course of stone. In between, small chips of stone and dirt fill in the voids of the wall. A lime mortar pointing joint or a lime stucco keeps water from entering the wall. If the proper lime-based mortar is not maintained on the exterior joints, water entry can lead to interior erosion of the rubble stone, causing structural deficiencies.
Most modern stonemasonry is constructed with this form of building. The stone veneer is clad on the exterior of a building over block masonry or wood construction with the use of mechanical fasteners. Veneer stonemasonry can be as thick as 6” to 12”, requiring a concrete footing below grade. Thin veneer stone masonry is a 1” thick application over wooden stud work without a footing but relying on the adhesion of a special latex-modified mortar.